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Country profile


Finland resembles other Nordic countries in that the number of irregular migrants is modest. Irregular migrant work force is often the by-product of complex bureaucratic residence permit processes and highly regulated labour force, especially in the case of EU and non-EU seasonal workers. Research in Finland will focus on domestic work and cleaning and agricultural labour. The former will be carried out in the metropolitan region, comprising four cities; Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen. Migrants with various legal statuses and diverse national backgrounds work in the domestic and care sectors in this region. The work on agricultural labour will be conducted in the rural areas near Pietarsaari, a town in the region of Ostrobothnia with a significant share of the foreign-born population (11% in 2022). Migrants from Eastern Europe, including Eastern European Roma and Ukrainian workers, are seasonal workers in the region’s greenhouses. Research participants in these two case studies include non-EU migrants without residence permits and intra- EU migrants working without a contract in these sectors.

Related publications

Paula Merikoski, Lena Näre and Salla-Mari Karti
University of Helsinki
The report presents general trends and features of migrant irregularity in Finland, including estimates of the number of irregularised people and the most common characteristics of irregularised situations that we have identified.

Academic Partner:

University of Helsinki

Lena Näre

Steering Committee member, WP3 Leader


Lena Näre is professor of Sociology at the University of Helsinki. Her research focuses on migration, precarious work, intersectionality, care and ageing. She is Associate Editor of Global Social Challenges Journal (Bristol University Press) and served as the Editor-in-Chief of Nordic Journal of Migration Research (Helsinki University Press) in 2012-2022.

Paula Merikoski

Post-doctoral researcher


Paula is a sociologist at the University of Helsinki, Finland. Her research interests include migration, intersectionality, home, citizenship and border studies, and gender studies. She focuses on ethnographically driven qualitative methods. In her doctoral dissertation (2023), she studied private hospitality for asylum seekers in Finland.

Country Engagement Partner

Deaconess Foundation

Anne Hammad

Director of Immigrant Services
I-CLAIM Partner


Working on projects: Undocumented community project (incl. day center services and detective work), Work life coaching program for victims of human trafficking, Support program for undocumented families (incl. special support for children’s activities)

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